Where to Apply Strut-and-Tie Modelling

Extending from my previous post on Principles of Strut-and-Tie Modelling. I will like to share with you more examples and cases on how to define D-regions for strut-and-tie modelling (STM) applications, as well as various actual cases where STM can be applied.

Figure 1 and 2 below illustrates on how to define D-regions in various cases. As I highlighted in my previous post, D-regions can be defined as a distance approximately equal to the overall depth of the member, h, away from the discontinuity. This also apply in the case where the load or change in geometry occurs.

B & D Regions
Figure 1: Typical RC Building Frame with B and D Regions
Examples of D-Regions
Figure 2: Additional Examples of D-Regions

Figure 3 shows actual cases in practice where Strut-and-Tie Modelling can be applied. For examples in precast concrete (dapped end beams and corbel), deep beams, beams with opening, beam-column joints, anchorage zone in prestressed concrete, foundations and finally bridge pier coping.

Actual Cases for Strut Tie Modelling
Figure 3: Actual Cases where Strut-and-Tie Modelling can be applied